Yangna References
Angie Debo, 1970
A History of the Indians of the United States

University of Oklahoma Press
Norman & London
Library of Congress #ISBN 0-8061-1888-1
  • "This same habit of quiet withdrawal was - and still is - used in other circumstances. The Indian wanted to be with his own people, to preserve his inner values, his cultural integrity." (pg. 7)

  • Native Americans gentle people - treated cruelly by Russians. (pp. 82-83)

  • Mission labor forced by soldiery, natives good civil people who would not steal.
    (pp. 99-100)

  • Shoshonis helped Lewis & Clark. (pg. 161)

  • "California was admitted to statehood in 1850. It began with a savage anti-Indian policy. Early statutes legalized the indenture of children and adults, authorizing any justice of the peace to sell their services to the highest bidder, and deprived them of all recourse by making their testimony inadmissible in court. Thus Indians were taken into virtual slavery, especially women for the use of the miners. In 1854 a California newspaper stated: 'Abducting Indian children has become quite a common practice. Nearly all of the children belonging to some of the Indian tribes in the northern part of the state have been stolen. They are taken to the southern part of the state and there sold." (pg. 164-165)

  • Civilizers "re-educate" Indians in schools. Indian ways were "studied" by the Bureau of American Ethnology founded in 1879, while they were still being wiped out, Paiute leader says not to fight back, do right always, do not tell lies, do no harm, seen as leader, leads to what whites called the "ghost dance", adopted by several tribes including Shoshonis. (pp. 288-289)

  • Land Treaties not accepted by 5 "civilized tribes", white leader furious, Indians couldn't fight back against bad PR, didn't have the means. (pg. 302)

  • "The strength of the movement (under Reorganization Act) was …the continued survival, through all historical change and disaster, of the Indian tribal group. Answering the objection of white Americans to "tribalism", he said that ignoring at a minimum, the tribe is a legally recognized holding corporation - a holder of property and a holder of tangible rights granted by treaty or statute."- Commissioner Collier of the 1948 Hoover Commission Task Force. (pg. 341)

  • 1950 to 1960 were some of worst years for Indians having their land taken away from them due to whites wanting them for agriculture, etc. Anti-Indian person with Council of Churches misquoted greatly facts, and turned people against them. (pg. 349)

  • HCR 108 used against them to take their land. (pg. 352)

  • Termination legislation used against them - Klamath Indians lived on well managed 720,000 acre prime forest wanted by timber interests. Secretary McKay brought to capital a person who had been defeated in tribal election to advocate for it. Land eventually sold (pg. 374)

  • 1955 National Council of Churches and Catholic review came out on side of Indians.

  • Ralph Nader published article in Harvard Law Review about past, present, future policy re native americans. Quakers supported Indian interests. (pg. 375 )

  • Religion is the most important thing in life, without it , without a prayer, no individual can exist. Indian leader expressing to Kennedy how Indians having a living god in air, water, land, flowers, rocks, etc.. (pg. 419)


Gordon DeMarco, 1988
A Short History of Los Angeles
Lexikos, San Francisco

  • Describes Yang-Na being near the present-day site of City Hall. (pg. 4)

  • Resistance of Native Americans to San Gabriel Mission.

  • Local Native Americans were Shoshone (pg. 6)

  • Only two buildings survived from Spanish era - Plaza Church & Avila Adobe.

  • Natives had no concept of evil spirits until Catholic Church came.


Tom Hayden, 1997
The Lost Gospel of the Earth
Sierra Club Books, San Francisco

  • "Two tribes inhabited the area in which I live today, the Chumash and Gabrieleno." Anthropologists describe these tribes as "highly accomplished practical botanists and zoologists" who were connected with nature in such a way as to not destroy it. (pg. 126)


Lola B. Hoffman, 1948
California Beginnings
Calif. State Dept. of Education

  • California textbook re Yangna - cruelty to Indians, importance of Yangna, white man taking life with guns, did not like it. (pp. 109-143 )


Hoover, Rensch, Rensch, Abeloe, 1990
Historic Spots in California
Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA 1937, 4th (Ed)

  • Indians supposed to get land when missions secularized in 1834, but few did. (pg. Xiii)

  • Father Crespi and Portola expedition - on August 2 the party reached a spot on the Los Angeles River occupied by the Indian village of Yang-Na at the center of today's Los Angeles. The hill, around which the Los Angeles River turned to the south at the point where it is bridged by North Broadway, is mentioned in the journal written by Lieutenant Miguel Costanso of Portola's expedition. (pg. 143)

  • Many artifacts have been uncovered at Springs at University High School. Later they pitched camp at a large Indian rancheria on Santa Clara River. (pg. 144)

  • Sept.. 8, 1771 Mission San Gabriel Archangel was founded, survived secularization and still a parish church today. Original site was 5 miles south overlooking the Rio Hondo (then called the San Gabriel). Nothing remains of the old buildings. Site was abandoned 5 years later due to flooding from the river. Chose higher, drier ground. It was several hundred acres. Another building started. Present church at 537 West Mission Drive in San Gabriel was started in 1791 and completed in 1803 under Father Jose Maria Zalvidea. Damaged in 1987, closed for earthquake repairs. (pp. 144-145)

  • El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles, was officially founded on September 4, 1781. Felipe de Neve, governor of Alta California from 1775 to 1782 ordered the establishment of the settlement. The first site of the settlement was a nearly dry summer stream that turned into a torrent in the winter. A second site was also flooded out, and what remains today is the third and final site of the pueblo of Los Angeles. The plaza around which the settlement grew was established between 1825 and 1830. Church on plaza begun in 1818, dedicated in 1822. From 1822 to 1844 the city's first cemetery, the Campo Santa, was located just south of the church. In 1981 an archaeological excavation unearthed Indian artifacts from the 18th century and the foundations of the old house of the padres (1822). Oldest house is Avila house of 1818. Restoration of plaza beginning of historical preservation in Los Angeles. DWP has display of history of LA water in Plaza park area. El Pueblo of Los Angeles State Historic Park is on the National Register of Historic Places. Most recent addition to the park is an Indian garden landscaped with plants indigenous to the area at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1769. (pp. 146-7)

  • Bunker hill, once fashionable, razing to make room for the freeway has virtually destroyed it. The first organized community effort by the pioneer Jewish settlers of Los Angeles was the acquisition of a sacred burial ground from the city council in 1855. The site (SRL 822) is near Lilac Terrace and Lookout Drive in the Chavez Ravine area. Charles Lummis started the Landmarks Club in 1894 to preserve the missions, and the Sequoya League in 1902 to "make better Indians by treating them better." He founded the Southwest Museum in 1907 to house the collection of the Southwest Society of the Archaeological Institute of America. He was LA city librarian from 1905 to 1910. (pg. 164)


Alvin Josephy, Jr., 1968 and 1991
The Indian Heritage of America
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston
Lib of Congress # ISBN 0-395-57320-3

  • 350,000 Native Americans in California before the white man arrived. (pg.138)

  • Arrival here placed between 30,000 years ago and 9,000 years ago. They lived similar to the Desert culture - hunter gatherers, no evidence of warfare. (pg. 140)

  • Lived in family units of about 100 or fewer people. (pg. 143)

  • Lived in non-hierarchical groups. (pg. 143)

  • "The change between the California Indians and their environment, unchanged for thousands of years, ended calamitously with the coming of the white man. Beginning in 1769, Spaniards occupied the area. Priests, aided by soldiers, rounded up the coastal natives and made them live at missions, converted them to Christianity, taught them agriculture and mechanics' skills, and maintained strict authority over them." They were severely punished. (pg. 145)

  • By 1848 still 100,000 native Americans in Calif. But after the gold rush 1848-1850, half had been killed or wiped out by disease. Many tribes became extinct. By 1900 only 15,000 were left in the state. Today population estimated at 40,000. "Most of them, although extremely poor and overlooked by the state's huge non-Indian population, maintain pride in the heritage of their respective tribes." (pp. 145-146)

  • Klose and Lader, 1994. - United States History since 1865. 5th (Ed.) Barrons Education Series, Hauppauge, New York, Library of Congress # ISBN 0-8120-1835-4.

  • Indians began to use corporation charters to conduct their communal business enterprises. (pg. 346)


Michael Lieder & Jake Page, 1997
Wild Justice
Random House, New York
Library of Congress #ISBN 0-679-45183-8

  • Native Americans "eliminated during gold rush", "…in 1920's, the United States Senate remorsefully concluded that "the California Indians were deprived of their property in a manner shockingly in disregard of every consideration of justice and humanity". (pp. 120-121)

  • US Govt. selects "own" representative in land litigation. "The Western Shoshone didn't select the tribal council of the Te-Moak Bands as its representative. Instead, the defendant - the federal government - reached out to the tribal council, the governing body of only a small percentage of the Western Shoshones, to serve as the representative of the entire group. Given the tenuous relationship between the tribal council and most Western Shoshones, the Commission and court should have shown more care before issuing such a momentous ruling." (pg. 192)


Patricia Limerick, 1987
The Legacy of Conquest

WW Norton & Co., New York
Lib. Of Congress #F591.1.56

  • Slave trade of Indians. (pg. 257)

  • Daily whippings and cruelty of missions to the Indians. (pg. 256)


Arthur F. McEvoy, 1986
The Fisherman's Problem
Cambridge University Press, New York
Library of Congress SH22.C3m36

  • Western European have ranked indigenous people in status by their "wealth."
    (pg. 25)

  • Chumash & Gabrielino considered most populous and wealthy in So. Calif. and
    Each group's population was in equilibrium with the carrying capacity of their local
    environment. (pg. 28)

  • Individuals had no right to alienate resources that were crucial to their community's well-being. Hunting and gathering locations belonged in common to the whole community. (pg. 30)

  • Slaughter of California Indians and deaths suffered in missions (pg. 41)

  • Missions put California Indians on clinically deficient diets, increasing their susceptibility to western diseases. Abduction of Indians for concubines and slave labor became a major industry by time of California statehood. Anglo-Americans and Spanish attacked Indian villages during critical food preparing and harvesting times and burned their food supplies to help capture them. Kodiak and Aleut Indians, in the employ of the Russians, turned against Gabrielinos. (pp. 44 - 45)


Carey McWilliams, 1946
Southern California Country
Duell, Sloan & Pearce, New York

  • The Indian village of Yangna became Los Angeles. (pg. 23)

  • Indians furnished labor of the missions. (pg. 23)

  • Brutal treatment of Indians results in racism still today, most were exterminated,
    Franciscan fathers put them down. (pg. 23)

  • Natives settled near water, very connected to the land, location of their village.
    (pg. 25)

  • Shoshonean Gabrielino occupied LA County. (pg. 25)

  • San Gabriel mission established 1771. (pg. 28)

  • The survival rate of Indians was in inverse ratio to their contact with the missions. So far as the Indian was concerned, contact with the Missions meant death. "With the best theological intentions in the world, the Franciscan padres eliminated Indians with the effectiveness of Nazis operating concentration camps." (pg. 29)

  • Mission experience - from the moment of conversion, the neophyte became a slave, he belonged thereafter to the particular mission, disaster of mission life for Native Americans. (pp. 29 to 37)

  • Sold as slaves in downtown LA. (pg. 44-45)


Bruce W. Miller, 1991
The Gabrielino
Sand River Press, Los Osos, CA

  • Vizcaino desecrates Gabrielino shrine "Nearly all of the Spanish explorers were blind to the richness of American Indian religious traditions. Here was a clear case of Vizcaino desecrating a Gabrielino shrine. This stands in stark contrast to the respect, and courtesy which the Gabrielino had shown toward Spanish religious customs." (pg. 11)

  • Benevolence and generosity of Gabrielinos towards missionaries (pg. 12)

  • Mission Dolores - This was the sixth in the chain of California missions that was slowly being forged by the Spanish like shackles, to bind the California Indian population. Not taught to read for fear education would promote dissension and strife among them. (pg. 21)

  • Mission economy maintained by native labor. Mission fathers appointed Indian "alcaldes" who were not chosen by the traditional Gabrielino elders. "Thus, one more way was found to enhance the mission system: alter the power base, and a new group benefits, while the old erodes." (pg. 22)

  • Marchers in Plaza of Los Angeles were "followed no doubt by the wondering gaze of the Indians of Yangna who had assembled for the event.(founding of Los Angeles) " (pg. 23)

  • Unhealthy diets led to many deaths in missions (pg. 23)

  • Gabrielinos defenseless against immigrants diseases. "the average life span dropped precipitously to six or seven years. Misery encompassed them all, men, women, and children. They died of European enlightenment - hard work, diseases, and an unaccustomed diet." Not surprising revolt of Oct. 1785 at San Gabriel Mission. Revolt put down. Again in 1810 3 dozen Gabrielinos remanded for plotting a revolt. Indians farmed out by missionaries for money to ranchers. (pg. 24)

  • "Governor Jose Figuroa's Provisional Regulations for the Emancipation of the Mission Indians, issued July 15, 1833, provided that half the land and property of the missions was to go to the Indians and half to the administrators. But administrators were unscrupulous and failed to hold the property in trust for the Indians. Thus in the space of a single lifetime, the Gabrielino Nation, whose territory once stretched over a vast portion of the Los Angeles Basin and whose people numbered in the thousands were reduced to near extinction. Culturally and spiritually, they had very nearly ceased to exist." (pg. 27)

  • Former lives changed forever by missions - "Stripped of their heritage and having abandoned their traditional beliefs they were culturally overwhelmed." Pg. 29

  • "Families were separated, tribal life was discouraged, and Indians who sought the old ways were intimidated by constant harassment." "A once proud, rich, and peaceful Indian nation, culturally and linguistically diverse, had been reduced by civilization to a dispirited and lost group of Christian laborers, no longer in control of their destiny." (pg. 30)

  • Half of remaining Indians in California were slaughtered in just two short years 1848-1850 during the gold rush. "They were shot at, burned out, starved, harassed, jailed and murdered; or simply robbed and left to the neglect of the state… The Americans, having stolen their land and erased their culture, largely ignored them, or placed them on reservations." (pp. 32-33)

  • Pillage of native American sites starting in 1870s. The Yarrow party removed as much as 15 tons of artifacts from mainland sites. Many others including developers "set the shovels digging and the dirt flying all over the Los Angeles Basin. Unfortunately not many of these people had the slightest scientific training, or concern for the sties they were pillaging. Hence much of what might have been learned was lost…but this cannot justify the wanton destruction of so many sites"… DeCessac amassed over 3,000 artifacts now in the Musee de l'Homme in Paris. He excavated a remarkable collection of Gabrielino steatite effigies that resemble sea birds. (pp. 36-37)

  • "Most Gabrielino cultural tradition has long since vanished under the great concrete and asphalt expanse that is now modern Los Angeles." There are still some in Los Angeles area who maintain some of the ancient traditions. "The complexity of Gabrielino culture was underestimated, or simply ignored, from the first European contact. The Spanish were more interested in conquering and converting the native, Southern California population than in learning from them. They had an almost-total disregard for native cultural values." (pg. 97)

  • "Some of the Gabrielino heritage has survived into our time. Such is the beauty and tragedy of this fine people." (pg. 115)


Lee Miller, 1995
From the Heart
Vintage Books
Lib of Congress # ISBN 0-679-43549-2

  • Mission Indians suffered under a severely coercive system, "few neophytes entered the missions of their own free will, for Indian nations it was slavery, ", Unable to leave the missions, Indian nations were deprived of their freedom, their rights, and their dignity., mass murder of native americans in so. Calif, slavery after freed by missions, (pp. 290 - 292)

  • Slavery, torture " To show defiance is to be whipped, chained, tortured and even killed," (pp. 292 to 303)

  • Two shoshone quotes. (pg. 320)


Wayne Moquin with Charles Van Doren (ed.), 1973
Great Documents in American Indian History
Da Capo Press, New York
Library of Congress # ISBN 0-306-80659-2

  • Shoshone Sundance described by Washakie. (pp. 74-76)

  • Protest to Governor John W. Hoyt of the Wyoming Territory 1878 by Washakie about how the white man had done horrible things to them, taken away their land, had superior tools and terrible weapons, how his people's hearts were full of disappointment, anger and desperation. (pp. 235-236)


Hugo Reid, 1939
Letters on the Los Angeles County Indians
University of California Press

  • Yangna is the name for Los Angeles - Letter #1

  • Gabrielinos were a healthy people before contact with Europeans. Their teeth were in almost perfect condition at death. Letter #8

  • With first arrival of Spaniards, they tied Indian males hands behind their back and took their women for sex. "They necessarily became accustomed to these things, but their disgust and abhorrence never left them till many years after." Letter #16

  • Violence towards and forced baptisms of Indians, "conversion" was a misnomer - Letter #17

  • Lazy "alcaldes" appointed over traditional Indian Elders, brutality of Padre Zalvidea, of San Gabriel Mission. "The padre had an idea that finery led Indians to run away, for which reason he never gave either men or women any other clothing (including shirts and petticoats) than coarse frieze (xerga) made by themselves, which kept the poor wretches all the time diseased with the itch. If any handkerchiefs or cotton goods were discovered among them, the same was immediately committed to the flames."

  • If woman had a stillbirth, she was punished by head shaved, "flogging for 15 subsequent days, iron on the feet for three months, and having to appear every Sunday in church, on the steps leading up to the altar, with a hideous painted wooden child in her arms!"
    Other people chained for other "wrong acts."
    "He [Padre Zalvidea] was not only severe, but he was, in his chastisements, most cruel. So as not to make a revolting picture, I shall bury acts of barbarity known to me through good authority, by merely saying that he must assuredly have considered whipping as meat and drink to them, for they had it morning, noon and night." - Letter #19

    Later, after Padre Zalvidea died, better padre came in and married people had sheets provided for their beds, and better clothing, and this helped them feel better about themselves. - Letter #20